Mark Rosengarten Bonding Homework Answers

Thank you to Brenda Corrigan for her work on this course.

Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem.

Credits: 1

Prerequisite:  Algebra 1, High School Biology

Recommended: 11th

Test Prep: CLEP  This course covers the basic material for a high school chemistry course.  The CLEP covers two years worth of material. Those wishing to take the CLEP will have to do significant additional study.

Course Description:  This course is based on Georgia Virtual Learning’s High School Chemistry course but uses other resources throughout.  This curriculum includes topics such as matter, atomic theory, the periodic table of the elements, bonding, chemical equations, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, gas laws, acids, bases, and salts, reaction rates, thermonuclear and nuclear chemistry, and equilibrium.  Students learn through texts, videos, online tutorials, as well as through hands-on and virtual laboratory experiments. A midterm and final exam will be given.

Materials List for home labs

Also, a scientific calculator is required, particularly for performing pH calculations in Unit 11.  Learn how to use it!

Note:  This course may require more study and practice than other courses due to the complexity of some aspects. The final exam will be created from your tests from throughout the course. Hold onto your tests and use them for review. (That’s always a good practice.)

Day 1(*)

  1. (*)Print out your first quarter grading sheet or use the Excel version.
  2. Keep in mind that your success in Chemistry will be directly proportional to the amount of effort you invest. The complexity of some of these subjects may require additional study and practice on your part.
  3. Laboratory safety is important. Although many labs are online, students will be conducting some labs at home. Please wear personal protective equipment such as safety glasses and gloves when needed.
  4. Assignments
    1. Save your written work as a record of what you did in this course.
    2. Please, no cheating or plagiarizing.
  5. What is Chemistry? Visit this website and read through what chemistry is all the way through what chemists do.
  6. As you can see, chemistry is a very important part of many professions, from research scientists to physicians. Believe it or not, even chefs need to understand chemistry, as they are constantly changing matter from one form to another, using mixtures, reactions, heat, and so on.
  7. The first unit on the Georgia Virtual site is a review of many concepts learned in High School Biology and a few from Algebra 1.
  8. Read through page 1.
  9. Remember to always follow the instruction here, on your course. Don’t worry about any additional instructions on the Georgia site.

Day 2*

  1. *Print the key terms for the first unit.
  2. Review the terms and then complete the crossword puzzle. You can click on the boxes and type in the words.
    • You can check your puzzle by clicking on the key picture.
  3. Give yourself 5 points for completing the assignment.

Day 3

  1. Briefly review the types of graphs on page 3.
  2. Go to page 4. You are going to be creating a graph.
    1. You could install the Graphical Analysis. You may need your parents help with this. (I was able to install and complete the examples myself, so it is doable.)
    2. If you have a tablet you can use:Vernier Graphical Analysis. If the gvl program does not work you can use these: for Mac and for Chrome.
    3. However, you could use any graphing program, even Excel, or just your hand and some graph paper.
  3. Scroll down to Now You Try It.
    1. Graph the data and answer the questions without looking at the answers until you answer them.
  4. Give yourself 10 points for completion of the day’s activities.
  5. Do NOT do the assignment at the bottom of the page. If you understand the two examples, we are going to move on.

Day 4*

  1. Do a quick practice using different kinds of graphs. (Don’t spend a lot of time here.)
  2. Although you learned about the scientific method in biology and possibly other previous sciences, we are going to review it here. It will assist you mentally when you complete a laboratory assignment and report.
  3. *Print the note taking guide. Watch the video on page 6 about the scientific method. It is 30 minutes long. Take notes on your pages as you watch.
  4. Complete the self-assessment below the video. Give yourself a point for each blank you get correct.
  5. Record your score out of 28. (potential for extra credit)

Day 5

  1. Try the Quantitative vs. Qualitative activity on page 2 of this pdf and the section on observations and inferences.
    • Scroll down to check your answers.
  2. Scroll down and do the “Quiz Me” questions. Check your answers and give yourself a point for each correct answer. Record your score out of 5 points.
  3. Which is an observation and which is a conclusion?
    • The milk tastes sour.  (Answer: observation)
    • The sour milk must be spoiled.  (Answer: conclusion)
    • gas blown on the candle was carbon dioxide because the flame went out  (Answer: conclusion)
    • Lemon juice is an acid and tastes sour. All acids must taste sour.  (Answer: conclusion)
    • The temperature of the liquid is 33 degrees Celsius.  (Answer: observation)
    • The wire is copper since it is copper colored & conducts electricity.  (Answer: conclusion)
    • When the powder was added to the water, it fizzed.  (Answer: observation)
    • It must be about to rain because the sky is getting dark.  (Answer: conclusion)
  4. Also do the Self-Check. Try to answer without looking at the answer.  See how you did.
  5. Complete this interactive lab on the scientific method. (Choose “What is the scientific method?”)
  6. Record 40 points for completing the day’s activities.
  7. Note: There is a lab on Day 10. Start gathering the materials needed for that day. (ruler, measuring tape, meter stick or yard stick, 2 different sized cups, bathroom scale that can weigh items at least between 1 and 20 pounds, measuring cup, large book, full two liter bottle or gallon of milk, large pot or pan)

Day 6

  1. Watch this lab safety rap video under the Management Tips called “Lab Safety.” It is a little silly but pay attention to personal protective equipment and procedures in case of an accident.
    1. Wear gloves, goggles and some sort of smock or apron in case of spills.
    2. Never smell directly from a container. Wave your hand above it with your nose a short distance away until you catch a whiff ONLY IF the lab requires you to smell the solution.  Do not smell anything unless directed.
    3. If you get anything in your eye or eyes, immediately flush with water for at least 10 minutes. Get your parents’ attention immediately and he or she can call poison control if needed.
    4. Do NOT do any laboratory assignments without adult supervision.
    5. Wear shoes and preferably long pants in case of spills.
    6. Keep long hair pulled back.
    7. Wash your hands immediately if you get a chemical on them.
    8. Do not wear jewelry.
    9. Be careful where you have equipment placed.
    10. Clean up properly. Most of your labs will allow solutions to be washed down the drain. Keep the water running for at least 30 seconds to flush the sink adequately.
    11. Take data during the lab. Do not wait until the lab is over as you may forget the data.  Feel free to use scratch paper that you can then transcribe to your lab notebook.
  2. Read How to Write a Lab Report on page 7. Read through the page and don’t worry if there’s a blank box at the bottom of the page.

Day 7*

  1. *Print the Scientific Notation Note Taking Guide.
  2. Watch the video on scientific notation found on page 8. (alternate link) Try to take notes and answer the questions before they give you the answer. You should have learned this material in Pre-Algebra/Algebra 1, so hopefully this will be a good review.
  3. Do NOT print the Scientific Notation Video Notes from the sidebar on page 8 as it is 28 pages long. It gives a written version of the video.  Refer to these notes if you are having a difficult time figuring out the answer and for the video quiz answers at the end.
  4. Complete the self-assessment and quiz me’s on page 8.
  5. Record your score out of the 6 quiz me questions.
  6. If you are having a difficult time with this section, try working some of the problems again. Go to Khan Academy and find the scientific notation sections to learn more and practice.

Day 8*

  1. *Print the Scientific Measurement Note Taking Guide.
  2. Watch the video on page 9. (alternate link) Use the Scientific Measurement Video Notes on page 9 if you are having trouble.  The quiz answers from the video are not in the notes.  (You do not need to print these notes out.)
  3. Study the rules for significant figures under the video.
  4. Try the self-assessment and quiz group.
  5. Record your score from the quiz group out of 4 total.
  6. Do the significant figures exercise. Review the rules above it for any wrong answers.
  7. Watch the music video for review. (alternate link) It may be silly, but it has important information.

Day 9*

  1. *Print the Metric Conversions Video note taking guide.
  2. Watch the video on page 10 (alternate link) and take notes. Refer to the video notes in the sidebar if needed and for the quiz answers at the end of the video.
  3. Look at the examples and do the You Try It! on your own paper.
  4. Check your answers. The answer key shows you how the answer was calculated, if you had any trouble.  Rework any problems you got incorrect.  Take note of the units that must cancel out to arrive at the correct answer.  Knowing what has to cancel will help you deduce how the problem must be set up.

Day 10(*)

  1. (*)Complete the problems on Metric Conversions.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. (*)Complete the Measurement Lab.
  4. Write a lab report. Note that this lab may not have a conclusion because you are taking measurements and converting them.  No physical or chemical changes are observed.
  5. Score the lab out of 20 points, including neatness.

Day 11

  1. Do the Quiz Me on page 10.
  2. Record your score out of 6 total.
  3. Review the unit for a test tomorrow. Practice some of the math problems and know about types of data.  Understand the scientific method and lab safety.

Day 12(*)

  1. (*)Complete the Unit 1 Test.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Score each answer correct out of 45. (chance for 5 points extra credit) (50 total answers out of the 30 questions)

Day 13**

  1. You will be starting the next unit, Matter. Read through page 1 and the unit minute.
  2. *Print out the key terms.
  3. You can work on your terms by using this crossword puzzle.
  4. *Print the Study of Matter note taking guide.
  5. Watch the Study of Matter video on page 3. (alternate video link) You can use the video notes in the sidebar for study and for video quiz answers at the end.

Day 14

  1. Study your notes from yesterday.
  2. Try the self-assessment and practice exercise on page 3 without using your notes.
  3. Do the Quiz Me questions for a grade.
  4. Record your score out of 7.
  5. Do the rest of the practice exercises on page 3. Take your time and redo the ones you have trouble with until you have mastered the concepts.  Use your notes if needed.

Day 15*

  1. Review your notes from Day 13.
  2. Move on to page 4 to learn about the classification of matter.
  3. *Print the note taking guide.
  4. Watch the video and take notes. (alternate video link)
  5. Use the video notes in the sidebar for review and to check the answers for the quiz questions at the end of the video.
  6. Look over the flow chart (on page 4) and notes from today to review the concepts.

Day 16

  1. Study the flow chart and notes from yesterday.
  2. Do the Quiz Me question for a grade. (Warning! Answer correction: Where it says the answer is pizza, it’s tea.)
  3. Record your score out of 7.
  4. Do the fill in the blank exercise. Use your notes if needed.
  5. Try the classify card game and image game underneath.
  6. Play the chemical mixture game. (Flash) Drag the item on the conveyor to the correct category above.  Try to do several levels.
  7. Give yourself 10 points for your hard work today.

Day 17*

  1. *Print the note taking guide.
  2. Watch the Separation of Mixtures video. (alternate video link) Pause the video as needed and write down your observations before proceeding.  This video has a lot of math problems.  Please take your time and rework ones with which you have trouble. End of video quiz answers (C-density, A-magnetism, B- D=m/v, C- 5 g/mL, A- float).  Be sure you understand the answers.
  3. I do not plan on completing the remainder of this page about high fructose corn syrup. Feel free to complete on your own time.  Just be aware that chemistry is used to produce food additives, good or bad.
  4. Get your supplies for the lab for Day 20: 3 fun-sized candy bars of different kinds (Snickers, Milky Way, and 3 Musketeers recommended for their rectangular prism shape-don’t have to be small sized), ruler, calculator, magnifying glass (optional)

Day 18*

  1. Review your notes from yesterday.
  2. Try the Compounds and Mixtures Activity.
  3. *Print out the first two pages of the lab handout. The third page has the directions found on page 6.
  4. Complete the virtual lab. Use the 25 mL graduated cylinder for the three metals. The 10 mL one in the instructions is too small.
    • Note! This uses Java. There are notes at the top of the page of what to do if it’s not loading on your computer, and there is also a download button under the activity if you don’t want to use Java.
    • The new HTML 5 Beta Version does NOT have the correct lab loaded into the Homework file.  You will need to either use the original Java based version or the downloaded version of the Virtual Lab program.
  5. Complete your chart and handout.
  6. Begin your lab report in your lab notebook. You may complete the report tomorrow.

Day 19

  1. Complete the lab report.
  2. Record your score out of 20 points.
  3. Check your lab answers.
  4. Study your notes thus far for a quiz tomorrow.

Day 20(*)

  1. Complete page 7 as a quiz. Please do not look at the answers to the math problems prior to calculating the answers.
  2. Record your score out of 12.
  3. Review definitions and concepts that are giving you trouble.
  4. (*)Print the lab handout or just create your own data chart and lab report.
  5. Complete lab on page 8. You will have time to complete your lab report tomorrow.

Day 21

  1. Complete your lab report.
  2. Record your score out of 20 points.
  3. Complete page 9. Try to answer the questions before the video, watch the video while taking notes about plasma on your own. This video promotes the old-Earth viewpoint.Talk to your parents about this issue based on your religious beliefs.
    • A little note about the “Learn More” in the sidebar. It says the scientists believe that in the beginning there was just energy, no matter. Do you know what the first thing God created was? Light! Do you know what light is? It’s moving energy. Remember that God didn’t create the stars (sun) until the fourth day.
  4. Read about the plasma state and changes of state using the links below. They are brief.
  5. Try to answer the questions. (These are from the bottom of the page.) Scroll down to check the answers.
  6. You can try to do the self-assessment in blue, but it is very difficult.

Day 22(*)

  1. (*)Print the lab handout.
  2. Complete the states of matter lab. (This will download something to your computer even if you click on Run Now.)
  3. Work on your report for your lab notebook. Be sure to answer the questions in your report.
  4. Record your score out of 20 points.

Day 23

  1. Study your materials for this chapter. Know definitions and be able to recognize examples of them.  Know the density equation and be able to work problems.
  2. Use page 12 as a review.

Day 24

  1. Complete your Unit 2 test.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record your score out of 32.  Add a point for each correct extra credit question.

Day 25***

  1. Read through page 1 of the new unit, Atomic Theory.
  2. *Print out a periodic table. Keep this available through the whole course.
  3. Keep the online periodic table bookmarked (or choose another you like online). You’ll want to be able to easily access it.
  4. *Print the key terms. You will be studying these terms throughout the unit.
  5. *Print the note taking guide.
  6. Watch the video on atomic theory on page 3. (quiz answers: D, B, B, C, D, C, B) (alternate video link)
  7. Here is the list of lab materials you’ll need for this unit: funnel or cone-shaped paper made into a funnel (with a small opening), metric ruler, compass for drawing circles, sheet of large paper (at least 40 cm square- may use newspaper or tape several pieces of paper together), dried beans or peas (at least 100), plastic container.

Day 26

  1. Complete the Rutherford Scattering Simulation. (Java) On page 3 you can read some more instructions about clicking on the tabs and what to click on and observe.
  2. Watch the video at the bottom of page 3 on the Rutherford model of the atom.
  3. Study what you have learned thus far on atomic theory.

Day 27

  1. Watch the two videos at the top of page 4. (alternate video links: Atomos music, atomic theory timeline)
  2. Try the self-assessment card exercise under the videos.
  3. Do the Quiz Me questions for a grade. Record your score out of 6.
  4. Complete the matching at the bottom of the page.
  5. Visit the interactive site BBC Bitesize about Atoms and Atomic Structure.
    • Read through the pages.  Pay attention to the last few pages which introduce several new concepts.
    • Remember that a compound includes the number of atoms of each element in that compound.  For example, CO contains one carbon atom and one oxygen atom.  CO₂ contains one carbon and two oxygen atoms.  H₂O contains two hydrogen and one oxygen.
    • A chemical reaction is displayed similar to a mathematical problem with each side having the same mass.  Remember that matter cannot be created nor destroyed in a reaction, therefore, the number of atoms must also be equal in number, but not necessarily in arrangement. Reactions will be covered more in depth at a later date.
  6. Try the test. Record your score out of 7. (potential for 3 extra credit points)

Day 28

  1. Go to the link at the bottom of page 4: Matter-Atoms from Democritus to Dalton. Read through by scrolling down and try the comprehension checkpoint questions throughout. Be sure you are familiar with Dalton’s theory.
  2. Try the quiz.
  3. Study the 4 items in Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Try to recite and explain them to your parents.

Day 29*(*)

  1. *Print the note taking guide.
  2. Watch the video on the Structure of the Atom. Take notes. (answers: C,B,C,B,A,A,C) (alternate link)
  3. Try the Atomic Structure self-assessment in blue (fill-in-the-blanks) for a grade.
  4. Record your score out of 8. (potential for extra credit)
  5. (*)Print the worksheet and complete the chart (under the question) or copy it  and complete it in your notebook. Use your periodic table if needed.

Day 30

  1. Try the isotope problems on page 5.
    • To calculate an average, you would multiply each mass times the decimal form of the percent for each isotope.
    • Then, add together those values. This is also shown in the answer.
    • Complete question 3 using the periodic table.
  2. Do the Quiz Me for a grade.
  3. Record your score out of 7.
  4. Read more about isotopes: one, two.
    • Again, it introduces a new concept, radioactive decay.  Just be aware that some isotopes are unstable and give off protons, making a totally new element with another element or particle released.  Remember that when the atomic number changes, it becomes an entirely new element.  Look at the examples that show this.

Day 31*

  1. *Print the note taking guide.
  2. Watch the video on Electrons in the Atom. Take notes. (answers: A,A,C,A,B,D,A) (alternate link)
  3. Play the game.

Day 32

  1. Do you remember the 4 items in Dalton’s Atomic Theory? Who was Neils Bohr? Max Planck?  What is the equation used for the wave description of light?  Check your notes to see if you were right.
  2. Do the wavelength and frequency problems on page 6 and check your answers.
  3. Watch the flame test video. It is an experiment and the screen is black for a bit. (alternate video link)
  4. Try the self-assessment in blue.
  5. Complete the remainder of page 6.

Day 33**

  1. *Print the note taking guide  and the energy levels chart from page 7.
  2. Watch the video on electron distribution and take notes and fill in what you can of the chart. Copy the diagonal rule when prompted. (answers: B,C,B,B,D,A,C) (alternate video link)
  3. Look at this page for review of orbitals.

Day 34

  1. Complete the section on atomic orbitals on page 8. Answer the questions that follow.
    • You will follow the directions and use this site on electron distribution. (Java) If you can’t use the Java activity, use the internet to state the following answers for the various types of orbitals.
      • Choose s orbitals and state its shape.
      • Choose p orbitals and state the shape of the px orbit.
      • Choose d orbitals and state how many lobes a typical d orbital has.
      • Choose f orbitals and state how many orbitals are in the f sublevel.
      • Answers (from GVL: sphere, dumbbell, 4, 7)
  2. Try Quiz 1, 3 and 4 from this site.
    • The key to this is add up the number of electrons in the configuration (the raised numbers after the letters, which is the atomic number/number of electrons.
    • For Quiz 3 and 4, count the number of electrons as before, then look the final number up as the atomic number on the periodic table where you will find the chemical symbol or name)
    • How did you do?  Practice more with these quizzes if you are having trouble.
  3. Use your electron configuration chart from yesterday to try Quiz 5 at the same site above. Remember to put a number and letter in the first box and the number of electrons of that orbital in the raised box.  How did you do?
  4. Study your electron configuration chart from yesterday. Can you duplicate it?  The orbitals are labeled s, p, d, f.  Sometimes it is useful to make up an acronym to memorize this order.  For example, I made up SuPer Dim Flashlight.  It contains those letters (which I capitalized) in the correct order.

Day 35

  1. Try to write out the electron configuration chart from memory.
  2. Try the self-assessment in blue without looking at your notes if you can.
  3. Answer the next 4 questions using your notes to help you if you need to.
  4. Complete the Orbital Diagram in blue for a grade. Use your periodic table to assist in finding the atomic number and element.  Hint: Each half-arrow represents one electron. Note that electrons fill the orbital spaces one at a time, then fill in the second electron to make a pair as the number of electrons increases.
  5. Record your score out of 14.
  6. Do the Quiz Me’s below for a grade.
  7. Record your score out of 7.
  8. Gather the materials noted on Day 25 for your lab tomorrow. You will need at least 100 dried beans or peas.

Day 36

  1. Complete the lab from page 10. (You could use the graphing application you saved from the first unit or create your own graph.)
  2. Complete the lab report using the lab report directions.
  3. Score your lab out of 20 points. You can use the grading rubric as a guide (and even divide your score by 5 to get it out of 20).
  4. Can you duplicate the electron configuration chart?

Day 37

  1. Study all of the information you have learned in this unit. In addition to the historical aspects, be able to use the wavelength formula from memory, calculate atomic number, mass, number of electrons, protons, neutrons, etc. from a chart.  Study your electron configuration chart and be able to reproduce it.  Be able to do an orbital diagram for a given element.  Practice, practice.
  2. Do page 12 for review.
  3. Try quizzes 6, 7, 8, and 9. Use your periodic table as needed.

Day 38

  1. Complete your test. You may use your periodic table and electron configuration chart if needed.
  2. Check your answers. Score 2 points per answer (some questions have more than one answer.)
  3. Record your score out of a total of 86 points. Take two points off for any incorrect answer.

Day 39*

  1. Read through page 1 of the next unit, the Periodic Table.
  2. *Print the key terms.
  3. *Print the note taking guide.
  4. Watch the video on the history of the periodic table on page 3. (alternate)
    • Take notes.
    • When the class on the video pauses to do their element organization, you do the same.
      • Take the first 15 elements and try to organize based on the final term of the electron distribution (valence electrons).  For example, the elements ending in 1s’s would go together, 2s’s would be together, 2p’s, etc.  Organize with increasing atomic number.
      • Pay attention in the video to how to use the periodic table when figuring out electron distribution.  This will help you tremendously.
    • Pause the video when prompted and really try to complete the exercises.
    • Remember what he says about the d-block having the first number as one less than you would think from the periodic table.  If the d-block is in the 5th row, you would start that block with the number 4.  For example, Iron (Fe) with atomic number of 26 in the fourth row, would use “3d” rather than a 4.  You would use one less than 4, which would be 3.
  5. This section takes a lot of practice. The “Noble Gas Distribution” makes it easier, since you use the noble gas before the element in question, and the remainder of the electron distribution.  It’s like shorthand of the chemistry world.
  6. Here are the answers for the video quiz. (answers: B,C,B,C,B,C,B)

Day 40

  1. Review Noble Gas Configurations below the video on page 3.
  2. Do the review in the box at the top of page 4.
  3. Try the Noble Gas distribution before the quiz me. Don’t forget to put the noble gas (located before the element on the periodic table) in brackets, then write out the remainder of the configuration. Check your answers.
  4. Do the Quiz Me questions for a grade.
    • Record your score out of 7.
  5. Note the chemical symbol corresponds to its Latin name.  Try to familiarize yourself with these oddball symbols.  It will help when you come across them in the future. (There is no additional work to submit for a grade)

Day 41*

  1. *Print the note taking guide and the blank periodic table from the sidebar. You also need colored pencils or markers.
  2. Watch the video on the Organization of the Periodic Table. (alternate) There is additional information on the elements in the table besides the electron distribution.
  3. Here are the answers to the video quiz. (answers: A,C,B,B,B,C,B)
  4. Complete the remainder of page 5. Use your periodic table to help you with the chemical name/chemical symbol game if needed.

Day 42

  1. Complete page 6.
    • Complete the practice sections using your periodic table.  Valence electrons are the TOTAL number of electrons in that outer energy level.
    • For example, Oxygen has 6 because it has 1s²2s²2p⁴.  You add up the digits for the highest level number (in this case, 2).  Remember that an energy level is all of the electrons in that level number.
    • For example an element with electrons in the 1s, 2s, and 2p use 2 energy levels (not 3).  An element with electrons in 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, and 3p, uses 3 energy levels (not 5).
  2. Try the matching again if you need additional practice.
  3. Practice using Building Elements.

Day 43

  1. Watch the short video at the top of page 7 (alternate) and complete the next two activities. Use your notes and the periodic table if needed.
  2. Complete the multiple choice in blue. Use your notes if needed.
  3. Do the Quiz Me’s on the rest of the page for a quiz. DO NOT DO THE FIFTH ONE ON STRONTIUM AS THE ANSWER IS INCORRECT ON THE WEBSITE. Also do the two noble gas distributions.
    • Record your score out of 13. (potential for extra credit)
  4. Do this element quiz . Don’t worry if you get some questions wrong.

Day 44*

  1. *Print the note taking guide and the Predicting Ionic Charges worksheet.
  2. Watch the video and take notes. (alternate) Don’t worry about doing the classroom project in the video.  Pay attention to the trends and the scientific explanations as to WHY the trends exist.  Some are more obvious than others and based on information you already know.
  3. Ionic charges: Remember the noble gases on the right of the periodic table are stable, that is, their valence energy levels are full. The other atoms on the chart “want” to be stable, too.  To accomplish this, the atoms will lose or gain electrons to try to achieve that state of the noble gas before or after as far and the number of electrons, with the outer-most level full.  The elements closer to the left of the periodic table will want to lose electrons (it’s easier to lose 1, 2, or 3 electrons than gain 5, 6, 7, or 8).  In the video, he hints that losing electrons is like giving to others, which is a positive thing.  So, when an atom loses electrons, it has a positive charge.  Also, think about it.  If you lose negatively-charged electrons, you now have more positive protons in the nucleus, giving the atom an overall positive  Does that make sense?  If you add negatively-charged electrons, you end up with more electrons than protons, giving the atom a more negative charge.
  4. Here are the video quiz answers. (answers: B,C,D,A,B,C,C)
  5. Complete the Predicting Ionic Charges chart. Check your answers by moving the cursor over the chart on the website.
  6. Record up to 20 points for completing the chart.

Day 45

  1. Study your periodic chart “cheat sheet” and the trends involved.  Do you understand WHY the trends are what they are?  You must know the definitions of the property to be able to understand why.  Watch parts of the video on page 9 again if you need reminding.
  2. Complete the Quiz Me’s on the rest of page 9 for a quiz grade.
    • Record your score out of 17.
  3. Complete the matching at the bottom.
  4. Try the ScienceGeek review quiz. Mistakes aren’t problems. They are opportunities to learn. Take advantage of them!
  5. Study what you have learned so far.
  6. This is the end of the first quarter. Calculate your quarterly grade. Your goal is to get an A. If you didn’t, what do you need to do differently to get a higher score next time?

Day 46(*)

  1. (*)Print the second quarter grading sheet or use the Excel version.
  2. Play the game. Select the periodic table game.
    • Part of the game is to choose the number of valence electrons of an element.  Then make it an ion.
    • Remember to add or subtract electrons so that it is in a stable, ground state (full valence level).
    • Do the dot level section and electron configuration.  The others have questions that have not been covered.
  3. Play Which One Doesn’t Belong.
  4. Complete page 12 for more practice. The Cl ion matching near the bottom is incorrect.  Both should be negative one, which is not a choice.  Use your periodic table/tables.

Day 47

  1. Complete the graphical comparison lab. Print off the graphs and put them in your lab notebook.
  2. Complete your lab report.
  3. Grade your lab based on the provided rubric. (Divide your score in half.)
  4. Record your score out of 50.

Day 48

  1. Study what you have learned in this unit. Revisit pages with which you need extra practice.
  2. Practice page 12 again. Be sure you can do electron configurations, valence levels, noble gas distribution, and figure out stable ion.  Remember the Cl ion question in the card matching is incorrect. Know about Mendeleev and Moseley.

Day 49

  1. Take the Unit 4 test.
  2. Check your answers. (3.3 points for each answer)
  3. Record your score out of 100. (potential 4 points extra credit)
  4. Obtain lab materials for unit 5. (These are all listed on the materials list at the top of the course.)

Day 50***

  1. You are starting a new unit today, Bonding. Read through page 1.
  2. *Print the table of electronegativities.  You will need this for today and future use.
  3. *Print the key terms.
  4. *Print the note taking guide.
  5. Watch the video and take notes. (alternate)
  6. Answers to the video element bonding results (ionic, polar covalent, ionic, non-polar covalent, polar covalent)
  7. Answers to the end of video questions (A,B,B,A,A,B,D)

Day 51*

  1. Complete the rest of page 3. Here’s the ionic bonding activity from the page.
  2. Complete the lab on page 4.
  3. Begin the lab report.

Day 52*

  1. Complete the lab report from yesterday.
  2. Score your lab based on the rubric, 100 points, and then divide your score in half.
  3. Record your score out of 50.
  4. **Print the note taking guide and video problem set.
  5. Watch the video on page 6. (alternate) Follow along in your notes and take additional notes as needed. Pause the video and do the practice problems.  Check your answers with the video.
    • Remember that when you do DOT DIAGRAMS, add dots to the symbol, you must place a dot for each side before putting a second dot on a side.  For example, Aluminum will have one dot on three sides, not two dots on one side and one on another.  Nitrogen will have a dot on each of the four sides, then add an additional dot for each side until you get 5 total (or the specific number of valence electrons on the periodic table).
    • Lewis structures are different.  Keep practicing.
    • Quiz answers are: (B,B,D,C,C,B,C )
  6. Record 20 points for completing the practice problems from the video.
  7. Record 10 points for completing the assignments.

Day 53

  1. Practice electron dot diagrams in the middle of page 6. Check your answers below in the matching.
  2. Watch the review video ABOVE the exercise you just did. (alternate video link) This teacher tells his students to complete the dot diagram by filling in two dots (electrons) on one side (representing the s2 orbital) then fill in one on each of the other sides before coming back and filling in the second dot (electron) on those three other sides (representing the p6 orbital). That is another (and probably more correct) way to complete the dot diagram.  Be aware that Georgia Virtual does NOT do this in the exercises and quizzes.  So it will also not be done on the test.  Just be aware of this difference.  You can skip the history lesson around the ten minute mark.

Day 54

  1. Practice Lewis Structures from day 52 for extra practice.
  2. Complete page 7. Do not look at the answers until you have tried them on your own.
  3. Record 20 points for completing the assignments.

Day 55*

  1. Study your notes for the test tomorrow. Be familiar with the types of bonds and the relationship with electronegativity.  You will be able to use your electronegativity table so print it off from the link on page 3 about mid-way down the screen if you didn’t already.
    • If wanted, here a couple of sites for review. OneTwo
  2. Know how to do Dot Diagrams, Lewis Structure diagrams, and Lewis Structure ion diagrams. Practice with ones from the unit.

Day 56

  1. Page 9 will be your test. OMIT THE CROSSWORD AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SCREEN. Take your time, use your periodic table and electronegativity chart.
  2. Score 2 points each and record your total out of 78 points.

Day 57***

  1. You will begin a new unit today on Chemical Formulas and Equations. Please continue to practice the Lewis Structure diagrams and dot diagrams if you continue to have trouble.  Chemistry builds on itself all year, so keep practicing.  Retest if needed.
  2. *Print the Ionic Charge Chart.
  3. Read through page 1.
  4. *Print and read over the key terms.
  5. *Print the Ionic Formula note taking guide.

Day 58

  1. Watch the first video on page 3. (alternate)
    • Quiz answers:( B,B,D,B,D,A,B)
  2. Go to the ChemFiles Ionic Formula Activity and create your formula. When the charges are equal, the bell dings and then you can click on a new compound.  The charges on each ion will help you determine how many you need.

Day 59

  1. Watch the next two videos on page 3. (alternate 1, alternate 2)
  2. Complete the remainder of page 3. Try to do the formulas on your own (the charges are given) before checking the answers.

Day 60

  1. Try to do the exercises again from page 3. This time, try using only your periodic chart and printouts to “find” the charges.  You will have to use the printout to find the ternary compound charges.  Practice looking them up.
  2. Play the Concentration game at the top of page 4.

Day 61*

  1. Complete the remainder of page 4.
  2. *Print out the Ionic Puzzle Pieces and the Binary and Ternary Compounds Handout.
    • Check your answers to the handout.
    • Record 10 points for completing the assignment.
  3. Practice more formula writing if you are having trouble. Use past examples and/or worksheets.

Day 62*

  1. *Print the Molecular Formula Writing note taking guide.
  2. Watch the video on page 5. (Answers: D,D,B,B,B,D,B) (alternate video link)

Day 63*

  1. *Print the Molecular Compounds handout and complete it.
  2. Check your answers.
  3. Record 20 points for completion.
  4. Complete page 5 through the blue vocabulary section.

Day 64

  1. Complete the rest of page 5.
  2. Record 10 points for completing the task.
  3. Go to Chemical Formulas and complete the interactive and try the quiz at the end. Hopefully, it isn’t confusing.  Remember, ionic formulas are between metals and non-metals (with positive and negative charges), molecular compounds are usually between non-metals (including organic compounds) without charges and uses prefixes.

Day 65*

  1. *Print the Naming Compounds note taking guide and the Naming Compounds Handout.
  2. Watch the first video and take notes. (alternate) At the first pause, complete the first two assessments directly under the video, which covers ionic formulas and naming ionic compounds.
  3. The quiz questions at the end of the video are also found at the bottom of page 6. Check your answers with the interactive.
  4. After the video, complete the next two assessments on page 6 which deal with molecular compounds.

Day 66

  1. Complete the Naming Compounds Handout. (printed on Day 65)
  2. Check your answers.  Note that ionic compounds have metals and non-metals and have charges that must cancel out.  They are named differently than molecular compounds, which are bonded non-metals and use prefixes.
  3. Go to the Naming Compounds practice and click on “Text Only” to begin. Work through some problems for extra practice.

Day 67

  1. Practice more naming compounds.
  2. Play Chemgame Tutor. Play the naming game. Use your charts.
  3. We are going to split up this unit into two parts. You will have a test tomorrow on naming ionic and molecular compounds.  Review your material and practice.  Be sure you understand how to name compounds with metals that have multiple cations (like lead (II) or lead (III)…).  Remember that an ionic compound could begin with ammonium (NH₄) as in ammonium nitrate, etc.  It is the only cation listed on your chart.
  4. Study your prefixes for covalent and inorganic compounds. Practice!

Day 68*

  1. *PARENTS ONLY-Print the test. Only print out page 1 as the answers are on page 2.  Or print page 2 also for ease of grading.
  2. Complete the test. You may use their periodic chart and ion charges chart.
  3. Check your answers.  Score up to five points each with a total of 100 points possible. Take off 5 points total if the student has to use notes for help with prefixes.
  4. Record your score out of 100.

Day 69*

  1. *Print the word equations and balancing note taking guide.
  2. Watch the first video. (alternate) You can find the answers in the multiple choice at the bottom of the page. The true/false question on the Law of Conservation of Mass appears to be a wrong answer. It should be “true.”
  3. Try the self-assessment a practice areas of page 7. Balance the equations and check.

Day 70

  1. Use the Balancing Act activity to practice.
  2. Try this quiz.
  3. Score out of 5 points.

Day 71

  1. Complete the lab on metals in an aqueous solution.
  2. Here are your directions and charts. Use the link in number one, not the one in the directions. If you are having trouble, please reload the page.
  3. You will finish your lab report on Day 72.

Day 72

  1. Complete/Finish the lab on metals in an aqueous solution.  Complete your lab report.
  2. Grade your lab report and divide your score in half.
  3. Record your score out of 50 points.

Day 73*

  1. *Print the note taking guide on types of reactions and predicting products.
  2. Watch the first video and take notes. (alternate video link) Check your video quiz answers with the multiple choice near the bottom of page 10.

Day 74

  1. Complete the first two assessments on page 10. In the first one, use your printed charts to help you write the compounds, then balance the equation. Check your answers when you are done.  Use your notes to determine the type of reactions.
  2. Record a score of 16 for completing the exercise.
  3. Review material learned thus far.

Day 75

  1. Practice more with reaction identification.
  2. Write the activity series of metals on the back of your periodic table. You will need this for your test.
  3. Study all of your material since the last test (Day 68) for a test on Day 76. Be able to identify whether a reaction will occur or not using the metal activity series. Know the 7 diatomic elemental molecules from your notes.  Know the states of metals, nonmetals, ionic and covalent compounds in reactions and their exceptions.  Know your 5 reaction types and be able to give a standard formula (using variables or example).

Day 76

  1. This is a two part test. Complete the reaction identification activity. (The equations may not be identical to when you practiced before.) Take note of the number of correct answers.
    • Your score is out of 15 points total here.
  2. On page 12, complete the portion BETWEEN the first exercise in blue and the crossword puzzle.
    • Score up to 7 points here.
  3. List the five reaction types and give a standard formula using variables (A, B, etc.) or an example if you can’t remember the other. 5 points for knowing the names and 5 points for the example or formula for each.
    • Score up to 10 total points here.
  4. Record your score out of 32 total test points.

Day 77*

  1. You will begin the next unit, Mass Relationships in a Compound.
  2. Read through page 1. Be sure you have your periodic table and ionic charge chart for this unit.  Make sure your periodic table includes mass for each element.
  3. *Print out the key terms. Begin memorizing Avogadro’s Number (6.02 x 10²³)
  4. *Print the note taking guide on the introduction to the mole.
  5. Watch the first video and take notes. (alternate) Pause the video as needed to complete the problems. Use a scientific calculator to complete the math to save a little time. Review scientific notation in unit 1, page 8 if you need a refresher. (Note: the screen with the answer to the problem containing calcium iodide has an error-Avogadro’s number is written incorrectly, however, the answer is correct)
  6. The solutions from Problem Set 1 and the Problems of the Day. The key to solving these problems is making sure the appropriate units cancel.  Pay attention to this step as it will help you set up problems correctly!
  7. Check your answers to the video quiz on page 4.

Day 78

  1. Complete the self-assessment, Part 1: Molar Mass on page 3.
  2. Complete Part 2: Mole Conversions.
  3. Record 10 points for completion.

Day 79

  1. Complete the Mole Practice problems on page 3. Try the problems before checking your answers.
  2. Record 10 points for completion.

Day 80

  1. Practice more problems using this worksheet.
  2. Check your and answers.

Day 81-83*

  1. *Complete the Mixed Reception Student Activity (Worksheets). Can you solve the crime using what you have learned thus far?
  2. Record 50 points for solving the mystery and having fun doing it.
    1. Check the answer page for a student  submitted answer key.

Day 84*

  1. *Print the note taking guide on percent composition and empirical formula.
  2. *Watch the video and take notes. (alternate) *Print and complete the video labs: onetwo.

Any chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen ignites together and becomes fire. For example, wood and gasoline. However, these two products don’t produce flame on its own because both are surrounded by oxygen. To have a good combustion, it needs high levels of fuel to generate heat and makes one set of fire.


Keep in mind that heat comes from different sorts of things. Wood burning can produce heat from friction, lightning, match, focused light or something that’s been burning. If the wood is heated over 300 degrees Fahrenheit, this starts to decompose heat and those types of materials that are made out of cellulose.

There are some materials released that are made out of volatile gases, and it is called as smoke. The production of smoke is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Moreover, its other materials are formed into as “char” that is nearly of ash or pure carbon. The wood does also contain materials that can’t be burned such as potassium and calcium. The “char” is known as charcoal which is also made of wood that’s been heated and removed nearly forming into volatile gases thus it leaves behind so much carbon. This is why you see charcoal fire doesn’t produce so much smoke.

Wood burning happens in two different reactions.


1. The volatile gases are too hot which is about 500 degrees Fahrenheit. The compound molecules are broken apart, and then the atoms are recombined to the oxygen to form products such as water and carbon dioxide. Meaning to say, it burns.

2. The char do also combine with oxygen but in a much slower type of reaction. This is why most of the charcoal during barbecue time can stay hot for a longer period.

Side effect


During a chemical reaction, there is a lot of heat which leads to the production of fire. Many fuels usually burn in just one step. For example, is the use of gasoline. As the heat vaporizes, this is the time that it burns as a volatile gas. Over the time, humans can produce and control fire.

Fire reacting to properties likes the ignitability, flame spread and heat release is the most relevant factor that could ever happen for the wood to perform fire. Charring can influence the characteristics of the property especially if the layers are protected.

Bottom line

To make a good production of wood burning, it needs enough to the higher temperature of heat for the wood to start burning. What it also depends on the way heat is produced. If the thermal properties are too damp or too low, the probability of heat is fifty-fifty. So, ensure that the materials are made of suitable materials to produce heat. This will surely come in handy in days where you might be out camping, and wood burning is all you need to keep you warm and able to cook your food.

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