"PAF" redirects here. For other uses, see PAF (disambiguation).
|Pakistan Air Force|
Pakistan Air Force emblem
|Founded||14 August 1947|
|Size||70,000 active personnel|
|Part of||Pakistan Armed Forces|
|Air Headquarters||Air Headquarters|
|Motto(s)||Urdu: قوم کے لیے فخر کی علامت|
English: A symbol of pride for the nation
|Anniversaries||Air Force Day: September 7|
|Engagements||Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, 1965 Rann of Kutch Skirmishes, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Six-Day War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Yom Kippur War, Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1999 Kargil Conflict, 2001–02 India–Pakistan standoff, War in North-West Pakistan|
|Chief of Air Staff||Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman|
|Notable Commanders||Air Chf MrshlAnwar Shamim|
Air MrshlNur Khan
|Falcon DA-20, Saab 2000 Erieye, ZDK-03 (AEW)|
|Helicopter||Alouette III, Mi-171|
|Reconnaissance||Mirage IIIRP, Falco UAV, Jasoos II Bravo+|
|Trainer||FT-5, K-8P, MFI-17, MFI-395, C-12, T-37|
|Transport||Boeing 707, Airbus A310, C-130B/E/L, CN-235, Saab 2000Harbin Y-12|
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (Urdu: پاک فِضائیہ—Pāk Fizāʾiyah, Urdu: [pɑːk fɪzɑːɪjəɦ], reporting name:PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport and logistics capability to Pakistan. As of 2017, per IISS, the PAF has 70,000 active personnel. It also currently operates 883 aircraft.
Its primary mandate and mission is "to provide, in synergy with other inter-services, the most efficient, assured and cost effective aerial Defence of Pakistan." Since its establishment in 1947, the PAF has been involved in various combat operations, providing aerial support to Inter–Services's operations and relief efforts. Under the Article 243[permanent dead link], the Constitution of Pakistan appoints the President of Pakistan as the civilian Commander-in-Chief. The Chief of Air Staff (CAS), by statute a four-starair chief marshal, is appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Pakistan Air Force is currently commanded by Air Chief MarshalSohail Aman.
1959 Indian aerial intrusion
On 10 April 1959, on the occasion of the Islamic Eid ul-Fitr festival holiday in Pakistan, an Indian Air Force (IAF) English Electric Canberra B(I)58 of No. 106 Squadron entered Pakistani airspace on a photo reconnaissance mission. Two PAF F-86F Sabres (Flt. Lt. M. N. Butt (leader) and Flt. Lt. M. Yunis) of No. 15 Squadron on Air Defence Alert (ADA) were scrambled from Sargodha Air Base to intercept the IAF aircraft. Butt attempted to bring down the Canberra by firing his Sabre's machine guns, but the Canberra was flying at an altitude of more than 50,000 feet — beyond the operational ceiling of the F-86F. When Yunis took over from his leader, the Canberra suddenly lost height while executing a turn over Rawalpindi. Yunis fired a burst that struck the Canberra at an altitude of 47,500 feet and brought it down over Rawat, near Rawalpindi. Marking the first aerial victory of the PAF . Both crew members of the IAF Canberra, ejected and were captured by Pakistani authorities and were subsequently released after remaining in detention for some time.
1965 India-Pakistan War
Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The PAF fleet at the time consisted of 12 F-104 Starfighters, some 120 F-86 Sabres and around 20 B-57 Canberra bombers. The PAF claims to have had complete air superiority over the battle area from the second day of operations. While, Air Chief Marshal Arjan Singh of the Indian Air Force claimed, despite been qualitative inferior, IAF achieved air superiority in three days in the 1965 War.
Many publications have credited the PAF's successes to U.S. equipment, claiming it to be superior to the aircraft operated by the IAF and giving the PAF a "qualitative advantage". However some Pakistanis refute this argument. As per them, the IAF's MiG-21, Hawker Hunter and Folland Gnat aircraft had better performance than the PAF's F-86 fighters. According to Air Cdre (retired) Sajad Haider, the F-86 Sabre was inferior in both power and speed to the IAF's Hawker Hunter.
According to Air Commodore (retired) Sajjad Haider who flew with No. 19 squadron, the F-104 Starfighter did not deserve its reputation as "the pride of the PAF" because it "was unsuited to the tactical environment of the region. It was a high-level interceptor designed to neutralize Soviet strategic bombers in altitudes above 40,000 feet." Nevertheless, the IAF is believed to have feared the Starfighter although, it was not as effective as the IAF's Folland Gnat. According to Indian sources, the F-86F performed reasonably well against the IAF Hawker Hunters but not as well against the Folland Gnat, which was nicknamed Sabre Slayer by the IAF.
According to Indian sources most aircraft losses of IAF were on ground while PAF lost most in aerial combat. Even though the IAF flew a larger offensive air campaign by devoting 40% of its air effort to offensive air support alone, according to Indian sources the majority of its losses came from aircraft destroyed on the ground through PAF air strikes. The PAF had achieved far more in terms of enemy aircraft destroyed on the ground but without doubt, the IAF had achieved much more in the close support role.
The two countries have made contradictory claims of combat losses during the war and few neutral sources have verified the claims of either country. The PAF claimed it shot down 104 IAF planes and lost 19 of its own, while the IAF claimed it shot down 73 PAF planes and lost 59. According to the independent sources, the PAF lost some 20 aircraft while the Indians lost 60–75. Despite the intense fighting, the conflict was effectively a stalemate.
1971 India-Pakistan War
Main articles: Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
By late 1971, the intensification of the independence movement in erstwhile East Pakistan lead to the Bangladesh Liberation War between India and Pakistan . On 22 November 1971, 10 days before the start of a full-scale war, four PAF F-86 Sabre jets attacked Indian and Mukti Bahini positions at Garibpur, near the international border. Two of the four PAF Sabres were shot down and one damaged by the IAF's Folland Gnats. On 3 December, India formally declared war against Pakistan following massive preemptive strikes by the PAF against Indian Air Force installations in Srinagar, Ambala, Sirsa, Halwara and Jodhpur. However, the IAF did not suffer significantly because the leadership had anticipated such a move and precautions were taken. The Indian Air Force was quick to respond to Pakistani air strikes, following which the PAF carried out mostly defensive sorties.
Hostilities officially ended at 14:30 GMT on 17 December, after the fall of Dacca on 15 December. The PAF flew about 2,840 sorties and destroyed 45 IAF aircraft while Pakistan lost 75 aircraft.
1973 Arab-Israeli 'Yom Kippur' War
Main article: Yom Kippur War
During the war, sixteen Pakistan Air Force pilots volunteered to leave for the Middle East in order to support Egypt and Syria but by the time they arrived Egypt had already agreed on a cease-fire. Syria remained in a state of war against Israel so the PAF pilots became instructors there and formed the A-flight of 67 Squadron at Dumayr AB. One of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt. Sattar Alvi flying a MiG-21 shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and was honoured by the Syrian government.
1979–1988 Soviet-Afghan War
Main articles: Soviet war in Afghanistan, Soviet-Afghan War, and Air Force Strategic Command (Pakistan)
In 1979, the PAF's Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief MarshalAnwar Shamim, was told by then President, and Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq, that Pakistan had reliable intels on Indian plans to attack and destroy the Pakistan's nuclear research facilities at Kahuta. ACM Shamim told General Zia that, "Indian aircraft could reach the area in 3 minutes whereas the PAF would take 8 minutes, allowing the Indians to attack the facility and return before the PAF could defend it". Because Kahuta was close to the Indian border it was decided that the best way to deter an Indian attack would be to procure new advanced fighters and weaponry. These could be used to mount a retaliatory attack on India's nuclear research facilities at Trombay in the event of an Indian attack on Kahuta. It was decided the most suitable aircraft would be the F-16 Fighting Falcon, which the United States eventually agreed to supply after the PAF refused to purchase the F-5E and F-5G. In 1983, when the first batch of F-16s reached Pakistan, ACM Shamim informed Zia of the PAF's capability to respond to an attack on the nuclear research facilities at Kahuta.
A letter of agreement for up to 28 F-16A's and 12 F-16B's was signed December 1981. The contracts, Peace Gate I and Peace Gate II, were for 6 and 34 Block 15 models respectively which would be powered by the F100-PW-200 engine. The first Peace Gate I aircraft was accepted at Fort Worth in October 1982. Two F-16A and four F-16B were delivered to Pakistan in 1983, the first F-16 arriving at PAF Base Sargodha (now known as PAF Base Mushaf) on 15 January 1983 flown by Squadron Leader Shahid Javed. The 34 remaining Peace Gate II aircraft were delivered between 1983 and 1987.
Between May 1986 and November 1988, PAF F-16s have shot down at least eight intruders from Afghanistan. The first three of these (one Su-22, one probable Su-22, and one An-26) were shot down by two pilots from No. 9 Squadron. Pilots of No. 14 Squadron destroyed the remaining five intruders (two Su-22s, two MiG-23s, and one Su-25). Most of these kills were by the AIM-9 Sidewinder, but at least one (a Su-22) was destroyed by cannon fire. Flight Lieutenant Khalid Mahmoud is credited with three of these kills. One F-16 was lost in these battles during an encounter between two F-16s and four Soviet Air Force MiG 23s on 29 April 1987. The pilot, Flight Lieutenant Shahid Sikandar Khan, ejected safely.
The PAF is believed to have evaluated the Dassault Mirage 2000 in early 1981 and was planning to evaluate the F-16 Fighting Falcon afterwards.
After the Pressler amendment was passed, the U.S. placed sanctions and an arms embargo on Pakistan on 6 October 1990 due to the country's continued nuclear weapons programme. All eleven Peace Gate III F-16s, along with 7 F-16A and 10 F-16B of the 60 Peace Gate IV F-16s, which had been built by the end of 1994 were embargoed and put into storage in the United States.
Desperate for a new high-tech combat aircraft, between late 1990 and 1993 the PAF evaluated the European Panavia Tornado MRCA (multi-role combat aircraft) and rejected it. The Mirage 2000E and an offer from Poland for the supply of MiG-29 and Su-27 were also considered but nothing materialised. In 1992 the PAF again looked at the Mirage 2000, reviving a proposal from the early 1980s to procure around 20–40 aircraft, but again a sale did not occur because France did not want to sell a fully capable version due to political reasons. In August 1994 the PAF was offered the Saab JAS-39 Gripen by Sweden, but again the sale did not occur because 20% of the Gripen's components were from the U.S. and Pakistan was still under U.S. sanctions.
In mid-1992 Pakistan was close to signing a contract for the supply of 40 Dassault Mirage 2000, equipped with Thomson-CSF RDM/7 radars, from France.
In mid-1994 it was reported that the Russian manufacturers Sukhoi and Mikoyan were offering the Su-27 and MiG-29. But Pakistan was later reported to be negotiating for supply of the Dassault Mirage 2000-5. French and Russian teams visited Pakistan on 27 November 1994 and it was speculated that interest in the Russian aircraft was to pressure France into reducing the price of the Mirage 2000. Stated requirement was for up to 40 aircraft.
2008 air alert
After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, PAF was put on high alert. It deployed to all its wartime locations and started combat air patrols. The speed and intensity of the deployment and PAF's readiness took the Indian Army High Command by surprise and later reports suggest was the main factor in the Indian decision of not going for cross border raids inside Pakistan. PAF was issued a Standing Order to launch an immediate counter-attack in case of an air attack from India, after a call from the Indian Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee to the Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari (the call later turned out to be a hoax).
2011 Abbottabad Operation
An initial investigation report revealed that the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) reported the movement of some half-a-dozen planes near the Jalalabad border at 11 pm before the US helicopters entered Abbottabad to kill Osama bin Laden. "One aircraft was identified as a US AWACS and the remaining five were recognised as F-18 jets of the US. These planes flew near the Pakistani border, but did not cross into the airspace of Pakistan,"
On detection of intrusion, PAF jets on air defence alert were scrambled and the PAF immediately took adequate operational measures as per standard operating procedure. The PAF aircraft continued their presence in Abbottabad area until early morning and later returned to their air bases.
However, the fact that so many non-stealth aircraft had entered Pakistani airspace, stayed for 3 hours to carry out a major operation, and that PAF jets only arrived at the location 24 minutes after the American helicopters had left made a senior PAF official term it "one of the most embarrassing" incidents in Pakistan's history.
2001–present Counter-insurgency operations in northwest Pakistan
See also: War in North-West Pakistan
The Pakistan Army faced several problems during its 2009 offensive against the Taliban in north-west Pakistan. Hundreds of thousands of Pakistanis vacated the area when the offensive was announced and, eventually, over 2 million had to be accommodated in refugee camps. The offensive was to be completed as quickly as possible to allow the refugees to return to their homes but the army's fleet attack helicopters were not sufficient to provide adequate support to the infantry. The PAF was sent into action against the Taliban to make up for the lack of helicopter gunships. Because the PAF was trained and equipped to fight a conventional war, a new "counter-terrorist doctrine" had to be improvised.
The PAF's Saffron Bandit 2009/2010 exercise focused on extensive training of combat personnel to undertake COIN operations. New equipment was inducted to improve the PAF's joint intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. A C-130 transport aircraft was indigenously modified for day/night ISR operations.
Use of laser-guided bombs was increased to 80% of munitions used, as compared to 40% in the previous 2008 Bajaur campaign. A small corps of ground spotters were trained and used by the PAF, in addition to PA spotters, to identify high-value targets.
Prior to the PA's offensive into South Waziristan the PAF attacked militant infrastructure with 500 lb and 2000 lb bombs.
A number of civilian deaths occurred during PAF air strikes on 10 April 2010 in the Khyber tribal region. According to a Pakistani military source, the first bombing was targeted at a gathering of militants in a compound. Local people, who had quickly moved onto the scene to recover the dead and wounded, were then killed during a second air strike. There was no confirmed death toll but at least 30 civilian deaths had occurred according to the military source, whereas a local official stated at least 73 locals, including women and children, were killed. A six-member committee of tribal elders from the area, tasked with finding the exact number of civilian casualties, reported that 61 civilians were killed and 21 wounded. This was not confirmed by military or political leaders but Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, General Ashfaq Kayani, gave a public apology on 17 April. It is reported that BBC news and several other media correspondences were not allowed to take interviews from injured which makes the whole episode more mysterious.
- Air Force Strategic Command (AFSC), Islamabad
- Northern Air Command (NAC), Peshawar
- Central Air Command (CAC), Lahore
- Southern Air Command (SAC), Karachi
- Air Defence Command (ADC), Rawalpindi
Main article: List of Pakistan Air Force bases
The PAF has a total of 18 air bases, comprising 11 flying bases and 7 non-flying bases. Flying bases are operational bases from which aircraft operate during peacetime and wartime; whereas non-flying bases conduct either training, administration, maintenance, or mission support.
Main article: Air Force Ranks of Pakistan
List of Air Chiefs
Main article: Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
- Air Vice Marshal Allan Perry-Keene (15 August 1947 – 17 February 1949)
- Air Vice Marshal Richard Atcherley (18 February 1949 – 6 May 1951)
- Air Vice Marshal Leslie William Cannon (7 May 1951 – 19 June 1955)
- Air Vice Marshal Arthur McDonald (20 June 1955 – 22 July 1957)
- Air Marshal Asghar Khan (23 July 1957 – 22 July 1965)
- Air Marshal Nur Khan (23 July 1965 – 31 August 1969)
- Air Marshal Abdul Rahim Khan (1 September 1969 – 2 March 1972)
- Air Marshal Zafar Chaudhry (3 March 1972 – 15 April 1974)
- Air Chief Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan (16 April 1974 – 22 July 1978)
- Air Chief Marshal Anwar Shamim (23 July 1978 – 5 March 1985)
- Air Chief Marshal Jamal A. Khan (6 March 1985 – 8 March 1988)
- Air Chief Marshal Hakimullah (9 March 1988 – 9 March 1991)
- Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan (9 March 1991 – 8 November 1994)
- Air Chief Marshal Abbas Khattak (8 November 1994 – 7 November 1997)
- Air Chief Marshal Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi (7 November 1997 – 20 November 2000)
- Air Chief Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir (20 November 2000 – 20 February 2003)
- Air Chief Marshal Kaleem Saadat (18 March 2003 – 18 March 2006)
- Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed (18 March 2006 – 18 March 2009)
- Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman (19 March 2009 – 19 March 2012)
- Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt (19 March 2012 – 19 March 2015)
- Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman (19 March 2015 – present)
Serving Air Marshals
Main article: List of serving Air Marshals of the Pakistan Air Force
Awards for valour
The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu:نشان حیدر) (Order of Ali), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas (1951–20 August 1971) is the only officer of the PAF to be awarded the Nishan-e-Haider for sacrificing his life to save an aircraft from being hijacked to India. Other awards include:
Main article: Special Service Wing
Women in the PAF
Previously, women had been employed by Pakistan's armed forces in non-combat roles only, such as the medical corps, and the PAF had remained all-male throughout its history. However, since 2003 women have been allowed to enroll in the aerospace engineering and other programs of PAF Academy Risalpur, including fighter pilot training programmes. It has been stated that standards are not compromised for women, those who do not achieve the same performance as their male counterparts are dropped from the course. A level of segregation between the genders is maintained. For example, early-morning parades are performed together but some parts of training, mainly physical exercises, are done with males and females separated. According to Squadron Leader Shazia Ahmed, the officer in charge of the first female cadets and a psychologist, this also improves confidence of the women.
In 2005 it was reported that two batches in the Air Force Academy's flying wing contained 10 women, with many more in the engineering and aerospace wings. Cadet Saba Khan, from Quetta in Balochistan, applied after reading a newspaper advertisement seeking female cadets. She was one of the first four women to pass the first stages of flying training on propeller-driven light aircraft and move onto faster jet-powered training aircraft.
In March 2006, the PAF inducted a batch of 34 fighter pilots which included the organisation's first four female fighter pilots. Three years of training had been completed by the pilots at PAF Academy Risalpur before they graduated and were awarded their Flying Badges during the ceremony. Certificates of honour were handed to the successful cadets by a "delighted" General Ahsan Saleem Hayat, vice chief of the Pakistan Army, who acknowledged that the PAF was the first of the Pakistan Armed Forces to introduce women to its combat units. One of the women, Flying Officer Nadia Gul, was awarded a trophy for best academic achievement. The other female graduates were Mariam Khalil, Saira Batool and the above-mentioned Saba Khan. A second batch of pilots, including 3 female pilots, graduated from the 117th GD(P) course at PAF Academy Risalpur in September 2006. The Sword of Honour for best all-round performance was awarded to Aviation Cadet Saira Amin, the first female pilot to win the award. Aviation Cadet Saira Amin won the Asghar Hussain Trophy for best performance in academics.
In September 2009 it was reported that seven women had qualified as operational fighter pilots on the Chengdu F-7, the first female combat pilots in the PAF's history, one of them being Ambreen Gull. Commanding Officer Tanvir Piracha emphasised that if the female pilots "are not good enough as per their male counterparts, we don't let them fly." It was noted that some of the female pilots wear the hijab while others do not.
Religious minorities in the PAF
Religious minorities have served in the PAF with distinction since its inception: Air Vice Marshal Eric Gordon Hall was Base Commander of Chaklala Air Base during the 1965 Indo-Pak War; Air Commodore Nazir Latif; Group Captain Cecil Chaudhry fought in the 1965 Indo-Pak War and, later helped establish the Combat Commanders School (CCS); Wing Commander Melvin Leslie Middlecoat was Commanding Officer of No. 9 Squadron during the 1965 Indo-Pak War; Squadron Leader Peter Christy; Patrick Desmond Callaghan is another Christian officer of who rose to the rank of Air Vice Marshal. He served as Eastern Air Force Command and Deputy Chief of Air Staff. Wing Commander Ronald Felix is a test pilot on the JF-17 Thunder since 2010 and was one of two PAF pilots flying the JF-17 at the 2011 Izmir Air Show in Turkey.
See also: List of retired aircraft of Pakistan Air Force and List of active Pakistan Air Force aircraft
- Not to be confused with Independence Day (Pakistan).
Pakistan Day (Urdu: یوم پاکستان, lit. Yaum-e-Pakistan) or Pakistan Resolution Day, also Republic Day, is a national holiday in Pakistan commemorating the Lahore Resolution passed on 23 March 1940 and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan during the transition of the Dominion of Pakistan to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 making Pakistan the world's first Islamic republic. A Republic Day parade by the armed forces is often part of the celebrations.
The day celebrates the adoption of the Pakistan resolution by the Muslim League at the Minar-e-Pakistan (lit. Pakistan Tower) that called for establishing an independent federation comprising provinces with Muslim majority located in north-western and north-eastern region of British controlled territories in India (excluding autonomous princely States) on 23 March 1940. Since then, the day is celebrated annually throughout the country as a public holiday. The Armed forces of Pakistan usually hold a military parade to celebrate the event.
Main articles: Lahore Resolution and Iqbal Park
The Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park in Lahore, Punjab, that lasted from the 22nd of March to the 24th of March 1940. During this event, the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other Founding Fathers narrated the events regarding the differences between Hindus and Muslims, and moved the historical resolution that cemented the formation of a nation-state in South Asia as Pakistan, even though it did not actually mention Pakistan at all.
The resolution was passed on 23 March and had its signatures from the Founding Fathers of Pakistan. It reads as:
[Quoting Resolution:] No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.
The British plan to partition Indian subcontinent into two dominion- Hindustan and Pakistan was announced on Jun 3 1947. In the event Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947 and Hindustan independence came a day later. Pakistan was immediately identified as migrant state born amid bloodshed. Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan became first Governor General of Pakistan and Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan, The first Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Indian Act of 1935 provided the legal framework for Pakistan until 1956, when the state passed its own constitution. While Pakistan's Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates of coming into force of its constitution.
Works and efforts by Basic Principles Committee drafted the basic outlines of the constitution in 1949. After many deliberations and years of some modifications, the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan was enforced in the country on 23 March 1956. This marked the country's successful transition from Dominion to Islamic Republic. The Governor-General was replaced with President of Pakistan as ceremonialhead of state.
Main celebration is held in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. The President of Pakistan is usually the Chief Guest; also the attended in public are Prime Minister of Pakistan alongside the Cabinet ministers, military chiefs of staff, and chairman joint chiefs.
A full inter-services joint military parade is rehearsed and broadcast live by the news media in all over the country. Pakistan military inter services also shows a glance of its power and capabilities during this parade.
The celebrations regarding the holiday include a full military and civilian parade in the capital, Islamabad. These are presided by the President of Pakistan and are held early in the morning. After the parade, the President confers national awards and medals on the awardees at the Presidency. Wreaths are also laid at the mausoleums of Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah founder of Pakistan. In very rare times and significance, foreign dignitaries have been invited to attend the military parade. From 1956–2000, the following foreign dignitaries who have attended parade are:
References and Notes
- ^Stacy Taus-Bolstad (April 2003). Pakistan in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8225-4682-5. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- ^ abJohn Stewart Bowman (2000). Columbia chronologies of Asian history and culture. Columbia University Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- ^ abcdAgencies (23 March 2012). "Nation celebrates Pakistan Day today". The Nation.
- ^Olson, Gillia (2005). "Holidays". Pakistan : a question and answer book. Mankato, Minn.: Capstone Press. ISBN 0736837574.
- ^Singh, Sarina; et al. (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway (7th ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet.
- ^Rizvi, Hasan Askari (23 March 2015). "Pakistan and March 23" (Special works published by Dr. H.A. Rizvi). Express Tribune, Rizvi. Express Tribune. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- ^DAWN.com (23 March 2015). "Pakistan holds first Republic Day parade in seven years". Dawn News, 2015. Dawn. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- ^Cohen, Stephen P. The idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
- ^Staff work (22 March 2015). "Preparations complete for Pakistan Day parade on March 23". NewsTribe, 2015. NewsTribe. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ abcdDAWN.com (24 March 2015). "Pakistan holds first Republic Day parade in seven years". Dawn Newspapers, 2015. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ abcDawn.com (24 March 2015). "Relive Pakistan Day: 1940 – 2000". Dawn archives, 2015. Dawn archives. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^Official name is (Urdu: Urdu: یوم پاکستان, lit. Yaum-e-Pakistan) or Pakistan Day in English. The day also commemorates The Pakistan Resolution Day, Republic Day (Urdu: يوم جمهوريه) or as Joint Inter-Services parade. Unofficially, the day is also known as 23 March