Sea Based Aviation National Naval Responsibility Essay



FF-1

Affectionately known as "Fifi" by its pilots, the Grumman FF-1 was the first in a series of outstanding aircraft that made the name Grumman a virtual synonym for Naval Aviation. Previously a producer of amphibious floats for the Navy, Grumman used its own funds to enter the competition for a new Navy fighter. The result was the highly successful, rather revolutionary, dual-role design, setting a standard of Grumman excellence for the next 40 years.

It was just two months after the stock market crash in October 1929 that six men led by Leroy Randle Grumman, a former naval aviator, formed the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, their first work for the Navy being the construction of pontoon floats for seaplanes. The floats, which featured retractable landing gear, attracted the interest of the sea service for the potential application of configuration to a fighter aircraft to improve its performance. Grumman submitted a design proposal and April 2, 1931, the Navy awarded the company a contract to build a prototype of what would become the FF-1, the first in a long line of Grumman fighter aircraft to serve the Navy. 

First flown in late 1931, the XFF-1 featured a 616 horsepower Wright R-1820E engine, achieving a speed of 195 mph during trials. Later engineers installed the R-1820F engine, which boasted 750 horsepower and increased top speed to 210 mph, by far the fastest of any fighter then in service. A second prototype was modified as a two-seat scout and designated XSF-1. 

The FF-1 proved revolutionary not only in its retractable landing gear, but also with its all metal, stressed skin fuselage and enclosed cockpit, all giant steps forward in aircraft design. Though its forward fuselage was bulbous in order to house the retracted landing gear, the FF-1's speed belied its less than streamlined appearance. This became readily apparent to a U.S. Army squadron commander, who upon seeing one flying during an exercise over Hawaii, decided to jump the strange bird with no wheels. "Great was his amazement," reported the Bureau of Aeronautics Newsletter on March 1, 1933, "when his dive upon the innocent looking target failed to close the range." In fact, the only significant drawback to the aircraft was its poor climb capability, taking over six minutes to reach an altitude of 10,000 ft. 

Quickly called "Fifi," by pilots, a nickname derived from the aircraft's designation "FF-1," the new fighter entered fleet service in May 1933, eventually equipping the Fighting Squadron (VF) 5B "Red Rippers." Grumman also manufactured a scouting version of the "Fifi," The SF-1 served as command aircraft in fighter squadrons and also equipped VS-3B. All told, sixty-four aircraft (both fighter and scout versions) rolled off the Grumman assembly line. Though their service as front-line aircraft in the Navy would last but two years, FF-2s (FF-1s modified with dual controls) received a new lease on life in the training command. In addition, in 1936 Canadian Car & Foundry acquired the rights to construct a version of the aircraft designated the G-23, examples of which were operated by Canada, Japan, Mexico, Spain and Nicaragua. In Spanish livery the aircraft served the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, with one claiming a kill of a Legión Cóndor Heinkel aircraft, the only combat victory ever scored by a Grumman biplane.

Cockpit Panorama


Specifications

Manufacturer:Grumman Aircraft and Engineering Corporation
Type:Carrier-based fighter
Crew: Pilot and observer/gunner
Powerplant:One 700 hp Wright R-1820-78
Dimensions:

Length: 24 ft., 6 in.
Height: 11 ft., 1 in.
Wingspan: 34 ft., 6 in. 
Wing Area: 310 sq. ft.

Performance:

Max Speed: 207 mph at 4,000 ft.
Climb Rate: 2.9 min. to 5,000 ft.
Ceiling: 21,000 ft.
Range: 921 miles

Armament:

One fixed forward firing and two flexible rear machine guns

Pakistan Navy

Pakistan Navy's Crest

Active14 August 1947 – present
Country Pakistan
TypeNavy
Size23,800 active personnel (inclusive of 3,200 Marines and 2,000 MSA)[1]
63 ships & 101 aircraft[2]
Part ofMinistry of Defence
Pakistan Armed Forces
Naval Headquarters (NHQ)Naval Headquarters
Islamabad, Pakistan
Nickname(s)پاک بحریہ or Pak Navy
Motto(s)Urdu: Himmat ka aalam, Allah ka karam, Moujon pay qadam English: "Of courage, God's grace, tread on the waves"
ColoursNavy blue and White         
AnniversariesNavy Day is on 8 September
Engagements

Indo-Pakistan war of 1965
Bangladesh Liberation War
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
2004 Tsunami Relief Operations
Operation Madad
Operations Near the HOA
War in North-West Pakistan
Balochistan conflict

DecorationsMilitary and Civil decorations of Pakistan.
Battle honoursNishan-e-Haider
Websitewww.paknavy.gov.pk
Commanders
Chief of Naval StaffAdmiralZafar Mahmood Abbasi
Vice Chief of Naval StaffVice Admiral Kaleem Shaukat
Notable
commanders
Admiral Mohammad Shariff
Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan
Insignia
Standard (flag) of the Navy
Naval Jack of Pakistan
Naval Ensign of Pakistan
Aircraft flown
BomberMirage 5
Electronic
warfare
Hawker 850–XP
HelicopterWestland Sea King, Aérospatiale SA-319B Alouette III, Harbin Z-9
PatrolLockheed P-3C Orion, Fokker F27-2000, Breguet Atlantique I, ATR-72-500
ReconnaissanceGIDS Uqab, Boeing ScanEagle, EMT Luna X

The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاکستان بحریہ‬‎; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's 1,046 kilometres (650 mi) of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases. The Pakistan Navy came into the existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The President of Pakistan serves as the Supreme Commander of the Navy under Article 243 (2) of the Constitution of Pakistan, and the Chief of Naval Staff heads the Navy. Navy Day is celebrated on 8 September in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.[3]

The Pakistan Navy's current and primary role is to protect the country's economic and military interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of the Government of Pakistan through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives.[4][5] In the 21st century, the Pakistan Navy also focuses on limited overseas operations, and has played a vital role in the establishment of the Pakistan Antarctic Programme.[6][7]

As of 2017, per IISS, the Pakistan Navy has 23,800 active personnel inclusive of 3,200 Marines and 2,000 personnel of Maritime Security Agency.[8] The Pakistan Navy is supported by the Pakistan Coast Guard, and the Maritime Security Agency (MSA), the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.[citation needed]

The Navy is undergoing extensive modernisation and expansion as part of Pakistan's role in the War on Terror. Since 2001, the Pakistan Navy has increased and expanded its operational scope, and has been given greater national and international responsibility in countering the threat of sea-based global terrorism, drug smuggling, and piracy.[citation needed] In 2004, Pakistan Navy became a member of the primarily NATO Combined Task Forces CTF-150 and CTF-151.[9] The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has significantly expanded the role of the navy, joint patrols with the Chinese navy as well as providing land and sea-based security to secure shipping lanes has become a priority.[10][11] From December 2016 Pakistan's Navy established TF-88 a taskforce that is designed to ensure there is security for maritime trade, this will guard the shipping lane routes by protecting Gwadar Port.[12][13] The Pakistan Navy is the custodian of Pakistan's second strike capability with the launch of the submarine-based cruise missiles capable of carrying conventional as well as nuclear warheads.[14]

The Constitution of Pakistan makes the President of Pakistan the civilian Commander-in-Chief. The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), by statute a four star admiral, is appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime Minister of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is subordinate to the civilian Defence Minister and Secretary of Defence, and commands the Navy.

History[edit]

Today is a historic day for Pakistan, doubly so for those of us in the Navy. The Dominion of Pakistan has come into being and with it a new Navy – the Royal Pakistan Navy – has been born. I am proud to have been appointed to command it and serve with you at this time. In the coming months, it will be my duty and yours to build up our Navy into a happy and efficient force

— Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, addressing the Naval Academy in March 1948., [15]

The Pakistan Navy came into existence on the Fourteenth of August, 1947 with the establishment of the State of Pakistan.[15] The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) divided the shares and assets of the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) between the India and Pakistan, with the Royal Pakistan Navy (RPN) was inherited with two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two naval trawlers, four harbour launches.:45–46[16] Because of the high percentage of delta areas on its coast, Pakistan also received a number of harbour defence motor launches. As part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the prefix "Royal" was used until the state was proclaimed a republic in 1956.[15]

The Navy endured a difficult history, only 200 officers and 3000 sailors were inherited to the Navy, the most senior being CaptainHMS Choudri who had little experience in military staffing.[16] The Navy suffered perennial problems with inadequate staff, lack of operational bases, lack of financial support, and poor technological and personnel resources.:45[16] Secondly, it grew out as the smallest uniform branch that contributed in its lack of importance in federal budgets as well as the problems relating to its institutional infrastructure.:46[16] The Army and the Air Force were the dominant force where the defence problems were based wholly on army and air force point of view.:46[16] There were additional problems relating to the navy were the lack of facilities and maintenance machinery as the only naval dockyard in subcontinent was located in Bombay in India.:46[16]

To overcome these difficulties, the Navy launched a recruitment program for the young nation, starting in East-Pakistan but it proved to be very difficult to sustain the program; therefore, was moved back to Pakistan to concentrate the preferred recruitments for the Western Pakistanis.:46[16] Furthermore, the Navy's procurement was greatly determined by its war role and had to struggle for a role for itself throughout its history from its existence.:66[17]

The beginning: 1947–64[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan-United Kingdom military relations, Pakistan-United States military relations, Indo-Pakistani war of 1947, British Admiralty, and Military Advisory Assistance Group

During the first war with India in 1947–48, the Navy saw no action as all fighting was restricted to land and air combat missions. On operational planning, Captain HMS Choudri engaged on commanding a destroyer from Karachi to Mumbai to oversee the evacuation of Indian emigrants to Pakistan.:474[18] In 1948, Pakistan Navy engaged in humanitarian missions to evacuate Indian immigrants trapped in disputed and hostile areas, with its frigates operating continuously.[16] The Chief of Naval Staff, Rear-AdmiralJames Wilfred Jefford, had created a "Short-term Emergency Plan (STEP)" to work up the frigates and naval defences in case of escalation of the war at sea.[16] In 1948, the directorate-general for Naval Intelligence (DGNI), a staff corps, was established under LieutenantSyed Mohammad Ahsan, who served as its first Director-General, in Karachi.[15] When the first war came to an end in 1948, the Navy temporarily established its Navy NHQ in Karachi and acquired its first O Class destroyer from the Royal Navy.:49[16]

The Pakistan Navy heavily relied its dependency on generous donations from the Royal Navy with two battle destroyers, the PNS Tippu Sultan and PNS Tariq.[19] The Tippu Sultan was commissioned on 30 September 1949, under Commander P.S. Evans, whilst the Tariq was placed under the command of Lieutenant-CommanderAfzal Rahman Khan.[19] The two destroyers formed the 25th Destroyer Squadron as the PNS Jhelum and PNS Tughril, under Commander Muzaffar Hasan, also joined the Royal Pakistan Navy.[19]

In 1950, the Navy's nationalization took place when many officers from the air force and army volunteered to join the navy and NCOs gaining commission as an officers.:50–51[16] Support from the army and air force to the navy led to the establishment of logistics and maintenance machinery with vigorous efforts directed towards integrating the navy presence in East-Pakistan, thereby creating opportunities for people in East-Pakistan to participate in the build-up.:51[16]

In 1951, the Pakistan government called for appointing native chiefs of staff of the armed branches but it was not until 1953 when a native chief of naval staff was appointed by the government.:51–52[16] The British Admiralty, however, maintained the command of the Navy through Rear-AdmiralJefford who had native deputy chiefs of staff including CommodoreHMS Choudhri, Commodore Khalid Jamil, and Commander M.A. Alavi.:51–52[16]

During this time, a number of goodwill missions were carried out by the navy's combatant ships, and non-combat missions were conducted under the auspices of the Royal Navy.[19] In 1951, HMS Choudhri's promotion papers as naval chief were approved by Prime MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan but it was not until 1953 when HMS Choudhri was promoted as Vice-Admiral and naval chief with the support from army chiefLieutenant-GeneralAyub Khan.:52[16] He handed over the command of 25th Destroyer squadron to a Polish naval officer, Commander Romuald Nalecz-Tyminski.[20]

In the mid 1950s, the Ministry of Finance awarded contracts to the Corps of Engineers for the construction of the Karachi Naval Dockyard.[15] In 1954, several efforts were made to procure a Ch-submarine from the Royal Navy but was rejected by Admiralty who agreed to loan the Ch-class destroyer, the HMS Chivalrous, which was designated as PNS Taimur.:51–52[16] From 1953–56, HMS Choudri bitterly negotiated with the United States over the modernization of the navy and convinced the U.S. government to provide monetary support for modernization of aging O–class destroyers and minesweepers, while commissioning the Ch–class destroyers from British Navy.:54[16]British Navy tradition were disbanded and cancelled when the U.S. Navy's advisers were dispatched to the Pakistani military in 1955.[21]

In 1956, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan voted for promulgation of Constitution of Pakistan and proclaimed the Dominion of Pakistan as an Islamic Republic under the new constitution.[15] The prefix Royal was dropped, and the service was re-designated the Pakistan Navy ("PN") with the PN Jack replaced the Queen's colour and the White Ensign respectively.[15] The order of precedence of the three services changed from Navy–Army–Air force to Army–Navy–Air Force.[22]

In February 1956, the British government announced the transfer of several major surface combat warships to Pakistan Navy that included a cruiser and four destroyers to be purchased with funds made available under the U.S. Military Assistance Program.:54[16] In 1957, the Navy finalized the sale of sale of cruiser warship from the United Kingdom, and used the government's own fund to induct the warship that caused a great ire against Admiral Choudhri by the Finance ministry in the country.:55[23]

In 1958, the Navy made an unsuccessful attempt to induct the imported submarines from Sweden using the American funds that was halted by the United States and the Pakistan's own Finance ministry despite the fact that the idea had support from Army GHQ.:57[16] In 1958–59, the Navy NHQ staff began fighting with the Army GHQ staff and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) over the plans regarding the modernization of the navy that resulted in bitter interservice rivalry between army and navy which ended with Admiral Choudri's resignation to the Presidency in 1959.:57[16] From 1956–63, the warships, two destroyers, eight coastal minesweepers, and an oiler were procured from the United States and United Kingdom as a direct result of Pakistan's participation in the anti-Communist defence pacts: the SEATO and CENTO.[16]

Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 and afterwards[edit]

Main articles: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Operation Somnath, and 1967 PNS Ghazi's circumnavigation

In 1959, Vice-Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan was appointed the naval chief and built-up his relations with PresidentAyub Khan whilst the Navy retained hopes for procuring a submarine despite financial constraints.:58–59[16] The Royal Navy accepted the requests from the Pakistan Navy for a regular visit to Karachi Naval Dockyard to provide first hand experience in submarine operations in 1960–61.:58[16] The Ayub administration did not increase the financial funding of the navy at the expense to army and air force but he did not object to American contributions to train the Pakistan Navy in submarine operations.:59[16] The U.S. Navy provided an insightful and crucial training support to Pakistan Navy enabling it to conduct operations in long range and the proposal of procuring the submarine was met with favourable views in 1963 due to the prospect of Soviet Navy leasing a submarine to Indian Navy.:58[16] In 1963, the United Kingdom began providing training and education on submarine operations, and in 1964, the PNS Ghazi was commissioned from the United States.:58[16]

Even though, the navy nor air force was notified of the Kashmir incursion in 1965, the Navy was well-prepared at the time when the second war erupted between Pakistan and India in 1965.[16] The naval chief Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan ordered all units of the Pakistan Navy to take up defensive positions off the coast, but did not order any offensive operations in the Bay of Bengal.:60–61[16] As the Indian Air Force's repeated sorties and raids disrupted PAF operations, the Navy assumed a more aggressive role in the conflict.:61[16] On 2 September, the Navy deployed its first long-range submarine, the PNS Ghazi under CommanderK.R. Niazi which was charged with gathering intelligence on Indian naval movements that stalked the diverting threats posed by the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant.[24]

On the night of 7/8 September, a naval squadron comprising four destroyers, one frigate, one cruiser, and one submarine, under the command of Commodore S.M. Anwar, launched Operation Dwarka, an attack on radar facilities used by the Indian Air Force in the small coastal town of Dwarka.[24] The operation ended with limited damage to the area.[24] After gunnery bombardment, the Ghazi was deployed against the Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombay on 22 September and ended her operations and reported back to Karachi Naval Dockyard on 23 September 1965.[24]

The naval operation in Dwarka had greatly increased the prestige of the Pakistan Navy and it had also alerted Indian Navy commanders to the significant threat posed by the Pakistan Navy, and to its own naval shortcomings.[25] After the war, the United States imposed an arms embargo on Pakistan and Pakistani military began exploring options for military procurement from China, France, and Soviet Union.:62[16] The United Kingdom offered the Navy to jointly built the Type 21 frigate but was rejected by Ayub administration that would only allow the financial capital to be spent on submarine procurement.:63[16]

In 1966, the Pakistan Navy established its own special operations directorate, the Special Service Group Navy (SSG234) after the recommendations from the United States Navy.[26] In 1966–70, Pakistan Navy had been well aware of massive procurement and acquisitions of weapon systems being acquired from the Soviet Union and United Kingdom, and the danger it will posed to Pakistan.:63[16] In 1968–69, there were series of unsuccessful talks of acquiring the warships from the Soviet Navy which ended with no yielding results.:63[16] Difficulties arose between and after the arms embargo was lifted by the United States which lifted based strictly on cash-and-carry basis.:63[16] Pleas for strengthening the Navy in East Pakistan were ignored due to monetary issues and financial contraints restricted the Navy's capabilities to function more efficiently.:63[16]

In 1968, the Daphné-class submarines were procured from the France while operating Tench class that was refitted and upgraded by the Turkish Navy.:63[16] Due to the Egyptian blockade of the Suez Canal, Navy had to execute a notable submerged circumnavigation operation from Indian ocean through the Atlantic ocean in order to undergo a refit program at the Gölcük in Turkey which was the only facility to manage the refitting and mid-life upgrades of military computers of the Tench-class.[27] Despite reservations harboring by the Navy NHQ about the aging Ghazi, she was sailed under the command of Commander Ahmed Tasnim starting from the Karachi coast in Indian ocean to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, through the Atlantic Ocean and ended at the east coast of the Sea of Marmara where the Gölcük Naval Shipyard was located.[27]

In 1968–69, the Navy NHQ staff began its tussle with the Air AHQ staff over the issue establishing the naval aviation who feared the loss of fighter jets and their pilots in the sea and was hostile towards this idea.:63[16] The United States entered in discussing the transfer of P3B Orion aircraft to the Navy in 1970 with Yahya administration but were not procured until the end of the 1970s.:63[16] In 1970, the foreign relations between Pakistan and East Pakistan further deteriorated and the Navy knew that it was impossible to defend East Pakistan from approaching Indian Navy.:63[16] Series of reforms were carried when Navy's serious reservations were considered by the Yahya administration and East Pakistanis were hastily recruited in what was known as East Pakistan Navy but this proved to be disaster for Navy when majority of East Pakistani naval officers and ~3,000 sailors defected to India to join the Awami League's military wing– the Mukti Bahini.:64–65[16] Such events had jeopardized the operational scope of the Navy and the Navy NHQ staffers and commanders knew very well that it (Navy) was ill-prepared for the war and Pakistan was about to have a sharp lesson from India in the consequences of disconnecting strategy from reality.:65[16]

Indo-Pakistan war of 1971[edit]

Main articles: Operation Barisal, Operation Jackpot, and Indo-Pakistani Naval War of 1971

By 1971, the Navy NHQ staffers and their commanders knew very well that the Pakistan Navy was poorly represented in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and there was no main infrastructure to conduct defensive operation against the Eastern Naval Command of Indian Navy in Bay of Bengal.:64[16] The navy was only able conducted the riverine-based operations that was being undertaken by the Pakistan Marines with the assistance from the Special Service Group [Navy] , codenamed Barisal in April 1971.[15] Although, the Governor of East Pakistan, Vice-Admiral S.M. Ahsan, made efforts to increase the naval presence and significance in 1969 but the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command continued to pose a significant threat since it had capability of conduct operations in long-range areas.[28]

Furthermore, the defections from East-Pakistan Navy's officers and sailors had jeopardize the Navy's operational scope who went onto join the Awami League's militant wing, the Mukti Bahini in a program known as Jackpot.[28] Though, the program was disrupted by the Navy from further annihilation but the naval facilities were severely damaged due to this operation on 15 March 1971.[28] The East-Pakistan's geography was surrounded by India on all three landward sides by the Indian Army as the Navy was in attempt to prevent India from blocking the coasts.[28]

During this time, the Navy NHQ was housed in Karachi that decided to deploy the newly MLUGhazi submarine on East while the Hangor in West for the intelligence gathering purposes.[28]

At the end of East-Pakistan crisis.... We (Pakistan Navy, Eastern Command) had no intelligence and hence, were both deaf and blind with the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force pounding us day and night....

— Admiral Mohammad Sharif, to U.S. Admiral Zumwalt in 1971, .[29]

With no naval aviation service to guard the Karachi port, the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consisting of 3 Soviet-built Osa classmissile boats escorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels on 4 December 1971.[30] Nearing Karachi's port area, they launched SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles, which the obsolescent Pakistan naval warships had no viable defense against.[30] Two of the warships, the PNS Muhafiz and PNS Khyber, were both sunk, while PNS Shahjahan was damaged beyond repair.[30] Outcomes were stunning for both sides with Pakistan suffering the loss of imported warships, and while India sustaining no damages to their attacking squadron.[30]

On 8 December 1971, the Hangor led by its CommanderAhmed Tasnim, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India.[30] This was the first sinking of a warship by a submarine since World War II, and resulted in the loss of 18 officers and 176 sailors of the Indian Navy while the inflicting severe damages to another warship, INS Kirpan, by the same submarine.[31] Pakistan Air Force that now acted as naval aviation made several attempts to counter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out the aerial bombing raids over Okha harbour, the forward base of the missile boats.[30] The Indian Navy retaliated with an attack on the Pakistani coast, named Operation Python, on the night of 8 December 1971. when a small flotilla of Indian vessels, consisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi and launched a missile attacks that sanked the Panamanian vessel Gulf Star, the PNS Dacca, and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged.[30]

The Python was a complete success for the Indian Navy, and a psychological trauma for Pakistan Navy, the human and material cost severely cutting into its combat capability, nearly 1,700 sailors perished at the barracks.[32] Civilian pilots from the Pakistan International Airlines volunteered to conduct air surveillance missions with the PAF, but this proved less than helpful when they misidentified a Pakistan Navy frigate, PNS Zulfikar, as an Indian missile boat.[32] The PAF planes made several attack runs before finally identifying the Zulfikar by the Navy NHQ.[32] The friendly attack resulted in further loss of navy personnel, as well as the loss of the ship, which was severely damaged and the Pakistan Navy's operational capabilities were now virtually extinct, and morale plummeted.[32] Indian Navy observers who watched the raid nearby later wrote in their war logs that the "PAF pilots failed to recognize the difference between a large PNS Zulfikar frigate and a relatively small Osa missile boat."[32] After the friendly attack, all naval surface operations came to a halt under the orders of chief of naval staff.[32]

The Navy's only long range submarine, Ghazi, was deployed to the area but, according to neutral sources, it sank en route under mysterious circumstances.[33] Pakistani authorities state that it sank either due to internal explosion or detonation of mines which it was laying at the time.[34] The Indian Navy claims to have sunk the submarine.[35][36][37][38]

The submarine's destruction enabled the Indian Navy to enforce a blockade on then East Pakistan.[39] According to the defence magazine, Pakistan Defence Journal, the attack on Karachi, Dhaka, Chittagong and the loss of Ghazi, the Navy no longer was able to match the threat of Indian Navy as it was already outclassed by the Indian Navy after the 1965 war.[30]

The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol craft belonging to the Pakistan Coast Guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and large-scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Karachi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi;[40] and ten smaller vessels were captured.[41] Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka.[42] The Indian Navy lost 18 officers and 176 sailors[31][43] and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Alizé naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force.

According to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost half its force in the war.[44] Despite the limited resources and manpower, the Navy performed its task diligently by providing support to inter-services (air force and army) until the end.[45] The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to the central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan.[45] Since then the Navy has sought to improve the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakistani sea lanes to an adversary.[45]

Cold war operations and post cold war: 1972–1998[edit]

See also: Operation Umeed-e-Nuh, Operation United Shield, Operation Parakram, Soviet war in Afghanistan, and Revolt of the Admiral

Pakistan fully endorse the requirements of a strong navy, capable of safeguarding Pakistan's sea frontiers and her Lines of Communication, monitoring and protecting her exclusive economic zone. Continuous efforts are at hand to provide the best available equipment to the Navy despite all economic constraints.

— Pervez Musharraf, 1999, [46]

After surrendering of Pakistan Eastern Command in East and unilateral decision of ceasefire in West, Pakistan learned a sharp lesson from India in the consequences of disconnecting strategy from reality.:65[16] After the 1971 war, the Navy had to rebuild from ground and the government came to realize its failure for ignoring the needs of navy at the expense of air force and army.[45]

By the end of 1971, the naval aviation was commissioned but it was not until 1974 when the aircraft joined the service that were procured from the donations from the Royal Navy.[45] During the course of war, the co-ordination between inter-services was limited, lack of communication, poor execution of joint-operations, this led to the establishment of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee headquartered in JS HQ.[45] In a small span of time, the navy facilities, manpower and profile of Navy was quickly arranged and raised by the coming and the first four-star rank admiral and the Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Mohammad Shariff reconstituted the Navy, and his services to Navy led him to be appointed as first navy admiral Chairman of Joint Chiefs Committee of Pakistan Armed Forces.[45]

The Pakistan Navy came into public notice in 1974 after it had reportedly applied a naval blockade and played an integral role to stop the arms smuggled in Balochistan conflict after the police raidIraqi Embassy in Islamabad in 1974.[45] From 1974–77, the Navy provided logistical support to army and air force until stabilization of the province.[45]

In the 1970s, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depending solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan as the Navy sought warships deals with France and China.[47] The Navy acquired the land-based ballistics missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft; it become the first navy in South Asia to acquire land-based ballistics missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.[47] In 1979–80, Pakistan procured the two Agosta 70 class submarines, Hurmat and Hashmat from France.[27]

Dependency on the United States again fell in the 1980s and the Navy enjoyed unprecedented growth, doubling its surface fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administration approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan with Pakistan acquiring eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from United States Navy on a five-year lease in 1988.[45] A depot for repairs, USS Hector followed the lease of these ships in April 1989. This was done due to the Zia administration's cooperation with the Reagan administration against the Soviet Union's invasion in Afghanistan.[45]

However, the arms embargo was again imposed after the Soviet troops withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 when the U.S. PresidentGeorge Bush, Sr. was advised to no longer certify the existence of Pakistan's covert nuclear arsenals program and the Pressler amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990.[45] The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expired in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994.[45] This seriously impaired the Pakistan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former U.S. origin warships.[45] Despite the embargo, the Navy assisted the UNOSOM-II to conducted military operation against Civil war in Somalia.[48] In 1991–41, the Navy became involved with the Operation Restore Hope, dispatching one submarine and two destroyer frigates to support to the United States Navy's operation in the civil War in

PNS Badr, a destroyer visiting Britain, 1957.

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