Essay Writing Steps Ppt Background

If you have an upcoming PowerPoint presentation, then you're starting to scramble to get your ideas together. 

You need to plan how you'll approach creating it. You know your topic and audience, and you know that your presentation has to grab attention, plus follow a logical order, and flow with clarity. It will take some work to achieve this, but the first step to a successful presentation is to simply sit down and begin to write.

This can be a stressful process. How are you supposed to get everything you know about X, Y, Z topic into the small, to-the-point, and articulate package that is a PowerPoint presentation?

Here, we make it simple. We’ll go over how to write a PowerPoint presentation—quickly and painlessly. We’ll start with how to write a compelling introduction with a fail-proof “hook”, how to create an outline, and how to finish strong. Then we’ll wrap it up with some helpful design tips—so the written and visual components of your presentation come together.

Before you jump into this tutorial, have a look through our professional PowerPoint templates on GraphicRiver. We'll walk you through how to plan and writing your presentation, but the design also needs to be on target with your goals.

Guide to Making Great Presentations (Free eBook Download)

Also, take the knowhow you'll learn in this tutorial further. Be sure to download our free eBook: The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations. 

Learn the complete presentation process in this comprehensive guide. That way, you can go beyond writing your presentation, and learn to design all your slides like a pro, deliver to your audience with impact, and more. 

Now let's get into the writing process that leads to a professional PowerPoint presentation!

1. Research For Your Presentation

Step 1. Develop Your PowerPoint Presentation’s ‘Thesis’

Right now, before you get any further in the process, write out what your topic is in one sentence. Think of it as a mini-thesis for your presentation.

In order to be effective, your single-sentence “thesis” must be specific, relevant, and debatable. It is an argument that you will spend the rest of your presentation proving.

For example, you may start with a statement like, “It’s good for photographers to be aware of their surroundings.” Getting a little more specific may look like, “As a street photographer it’s important to be clear about your circumstances.”

And finally, getting as specific and clear as possible might look like this “mini-thesis” from one of our photography tutorials:

Few things are more important as a street photographer than being clear on the context, or circumstances, in which you are photographing. 

Step 2. Identify the Most Relevant Points

Now that you’ve written out your topic's mini-thesis, it’s time to get to the main points.

The simplest way to do this? Make a list. Jot down everything that comes to mind on your topic. Once you’ve done this, go back through the list and highlight (or circle or underline) the points that are most important.

Remember, one key factor of your thesis is debatability. Treat this like an argument that you are trying to win. If you only had 5-6 main points to persuade a listener to agree with your opinion, which points would you choose?

Step 3. Outline Your PowerPoint Presentation

Your outline is simply a list of your main points and subpoints of your presentation. Check out this article on resume design for example:

“Step 3” is a main point; “1. Basic Setup” is a subpoint; and the rest of the text are, well, sub-subpoints.

Take the main points you wrote in Step Two and write a few bullet point notes below them as subpoints arguing each main point you want to make.

2. Sit Down to Write

Step 1. Start Strong

Remember that mini-thesis we worked on? You’re about to be really glad you did it.

Your introduction should consist of two things: your thesis and a summary of your outline. It's important to find the right balance with how you approach this. You want to neatly skim over each of the main points you will be covering but without giving too much away too early.

Your introduction shouldn’t just be informative, it needs to be engaging, too. It's your opportunity to convince your listeners that what you have to say is interesting and worth their attention. It should grab their attention.

Step 2. End Strong

Your conclusion will look and sound a lot like your introduction. The only difference is that your introduction is to intrigue and your conclusion is to call your listeners to action. 

Avoid watered down phrases as you wrap up your points. Don't give hints or suggestions. Instead, use direct language and make impactful summary points. 

Focus on what you want your listeners to leave your presentation thinking about and taking action on.

Step 3. Create a Compelling Hook and Angle

Your goal with the first statement of your introduction is to hook your listeners. You want to say something that makes them want to keep listening.

Ways to hook audience:

  • Use a provocative statement.
  • Tell a brief story or anecdote.
  • Ask a rhetorical question.
  • Say something that shocks or surprises your audience.
  • Bring up a problem and share the solution.

This tutorial on how to make a persuasive presentation has a number of helpful tips on crafting a compelling hook: 

Step 4. Turn Your Main Points Into Mini Hooks

Think of each main point as a mini hook. A point is an opportunity to draw your audience in. Take advantage of this. Every main point you make should be a memorable one-liner. And when it comes to the delivery of each point, remember to speak clearly, state slowly, and pause where appropriate for effect.

3. Get Your Presentation Design Right

The writing process for PowerPoint, isn't produced in isolation. It's one of a number of contributing factors that need to be planned in partnership to craft an effective presentation. Design is just as important. 

Nothing will distract your audience more than a poorly designed PowerPoint presentation. Even if you’ve rehearsed thirty times, even if you’ve properly emphasized your main points, even if you have the most engaging hook, it just won't move an audience without a clear design strategy that visually pulls your presentation together. Here are a few critical design steps to take:

Step 1. Choose an Engaging PPT Template Design

Your slides need to be up-to-date and relevant. Have you ever seen a presentation that used a template that looks like it’s outdated or overused? Yeah, so has your audience. Instead, download a modern (yet simple) PowerPoint Templates from our marketplace. There are many professional options to choose from.

Step 2. Work With Relevant Presentation Graphics

Photos and graphics are a great way to make a presentation more engaging. If they’re chosen well. But they can also be distracting.

Graphs are more likely to cause your audience to focus on the screen instead of on what you’re saying. If you decide to use a graph or infographic to illustrate a point, choose one that is simple to read.

Because photos and illustrations can be distracting, use them when it add to the understanding of your point. When you use graphic assets, make sure they are relevant, in a current style, and are high quality.

You can grab a PowerPoint template that has an attractive, pro design, and comes loaded with great graphic slide options (such as simple graphs, photo layouts, and usable infographics) as featured in this article:

Step 3. Format Your Slide Text for Readability

Your text formatting should be purposeful and visually consistent.

Your main points should act as headlines to a slide and should be a different size (or even font) then your body text, and the fonts and sizes for each should remain the same throughout all your slides. 

Also, remember that when it comes to what’s included on your PowerPoint presentation slides, less is always more. If you add too much, it can quickly clutter your slide, and confuse your points. You want your presentation slides to read clearly.

A presentation is about you and what you have to say. Your slides are merely the back-up dancers. 

Discover more professional PowerPoint presentation tips in this article: 

Write a Professional PowerPoint Presentation Today!

Writing a PowerPoint presentation doesn’t have to be stressful. Just remember, your first step to a successful presentation is to simply sit down, start planning, and write it all out before you even open up PowerPoint.

The process of writing a presentation is a straightforward, linear one. All you’ve got to do is follow the steps. Write your thesis and main points, create a solid introduction and conclusion, find ways to hook your audience, and bring it all together with a visually appealing set of slides that back you up.

Now that it’s time to write up your next PowerPoint presentation, you’ve got the steps listed out for you. Take them one at a time and you'll see your ideas quickly transform into a polished presentation.

If you have any follow up questions or tips about how to write a presentation, plan what you'll cover, and then craft it in PowerPoint, leave a comment below.

Download Our Free eBook on Making Great Presentations

Before you go, be sure to grab The Complete Guide to Making Great Presentations now for FREE with a subscription to the Tuts+ Business Newsletter. Use this comprehensive PDF guide, to get your ideas formed into a powerful presentation that will move your audience!

Graphic Credit

Presentation graphic by Yamini Ahluwalia from the Noun Project.

What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.

STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC

Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research.

Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to “Buddhism”. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher.

Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.

STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION

Surf the Net.

For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.

Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time.

The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com.

To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).

Check out other print materials available in the Library:

  • Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs
  • Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
  • Government Publications, Guides, Reports
  • Magazines, Newspapers
  • Vertical Files
  • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories

Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs:

  • Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.)
  • Google Scholar 
  • Wall Street Executive Library
  • Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.)
  • Answers.com – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly.
  • Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.)
  • Magazines and Journals
  • Newspapers
  • International Public Library 
  • Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.)

Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.

Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information.

As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.

STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT

Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it.

A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.

A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.

It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas.

Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read.

Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers.

A thesis statement should do the following:

  • Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research
  • Tell the readers what to expect from your paper
  • Answer the question you were asked
  • Present your claim which other people may want to dispute

Make sure your thesis is strong.

If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself.

You must check:

  • Does my statement answer the question of my assignment?
  • Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument.
  • Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.
  • Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact?
  • Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal.

A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author.

More helpful hints about Writing a Research Paper.

STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE

A research paper basically has the following structure:

  1. Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date)
  2. Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less)
  3. Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages)
  4. Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research:
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results (what are the results obtained)
  • Discussion and Conclusion etc.
  1. Reference
  2. Tables, figures, and appendix (optional)

An outline might be formal or informal.

An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.

Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers.

In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.

All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.

Example of an outline:

I. INTRODUCTION - (Brief comment leading into subject matter - Thesis statement on Shakespeare) II. BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Years A. Early life in Stratford 1. Shakespeare's family a. Shakespeare's father b. Shakespeare's mother 2. Shakespeare's marriage a. Life of Anne Hathaway b. Reference in Shakespeare's Poems B. Shakespeare's works 1. Plays a. Tragedies i. Hamlet ii. Romeo and Juliet b. Comedies i. The Tempest ii. Much Ado About Nothing c. Histories i. King John ii. Richard III iii. Henry VIII 2. Sonnets 3. Other poems C. Shakespeare's Later Years 1. Last two plays 2. Retired to Stratford a. Death b. Burial i. Epitaph on his tombstone III. CONCLUSION A. Analytical summary 1. Shakespeare's early life 2. Shakespeare's works 3. Shakespeare's later years B. Thesis reworded C. Concluding statement

The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative.

INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.

BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.

CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.

STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES

Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.

Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.

Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of your outline:

I. Understanding the Internet A. What is the Internet 3. How to "Surf the Net" b. Accessing WWW

Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline.

STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT

Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.

Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.

Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined.

If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.

STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT

Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly.

CHECKLIST ONE:

1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?
2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?
3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?
4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing?
5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments?
6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?

Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed.

CHECKLIST TWO:

1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?
2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?
3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?
4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?
5. Varying lengths of sentences?
6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?
7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?
8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?
9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?
10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”?
11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose”
12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective?
13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?


The Elements of Style, Fourth Edition, by William Strunk, Jr.

For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Bartleby.com. Note: William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918.

There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on the field of your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor.

There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. The most recent printed guide on it is the  MLA Handbook (8th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source.

You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting.

STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER

All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer.

Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated.

Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive.

Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”

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